Trabalho informal puxou aumento da taxa de ocupação, diz Ipea

A geração de vagas de trabalho informais – sem carteira assinada – foi responsável pelo aumento da taxa de ocupação no país no trimestre encerrado em janeiro, enquanto o ritmo de criação de novas vagas formais vem perdendo fôlego nos últimos meses, mostrou estudo divulgado hoje (20) pelo Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (Ipea).

Segundo a Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (Pnad), do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), o crescimento da taxa de ocupação perdeu força. O estudo divulgado pelo Ipea faz uma análise dos dados do IBGE, que revelam que, no início de 2018, a taxa crescia a 2% na comparação com o ano anterior. No trimestre encerrado em janeiro deste ano a alta foi de 0,9%. 

“Além de fraco, o aumento da ocupação aconteceu, basicamente, nos setores informais da economia”, informa um trecho da seção Mercado de Trabalho, do boletim Carta de Conjuntura do Ipea, que também usa dados do Cadastro Geral de Emprego e Desemprego (Caged). “Adicionalmente, nota-se que quase um quarto dos empregos formais criados foram baseados em contratos de trabalho parciais ou intermitentes”. 

Apesar de a geração de vagas informais puxar o crescimento da ocupação, o Ipea avalia que a desaceleração da taxa de 2% para 0,9% se deve à perda de intensidade no crescimento das vagas sem carteira assinada. No início de 2018, a criação de novas vagas informais era de 7,3%, enquanto no trimestre encerrado em janeiro deste ano, a expansão foi de 3%.

Nos três meses encerrados em janeiro, a variação das vagas formais foi de -0,4%, resultado que se repetiu no trimestre anterior. O saldo negativo dos empregos com carteira assinada vem perdendo força desde o segundo trimestre de 2016, quando a queda chegou a 3,6%.

“Em suma, os dados da Pnad Contínua indicam que o emprego formal vinha apontando uma trajetória de retrações cada vez menores e de taxas de permanência cada vez maiores até meados de 2018. A partir daí, há uma estagnação nesses indicadores”, analisam os economistas do Ipea.

Enquanto a taxa de ocupação geral subiu 0,9% nos três meses encerrados em janeiro, o indicador teve variação negativa de 1,3%, quando avaliados os jovens de 18 a 24 anos. Segundo o Ipea, os jovens nessa faixa etária têm menos chances de serem contratados e mais chances de serem demitidos. A persistência da taxa de desemprego também afeta mais os menos escolarizados, segundo o instituto. 

O tempo de permanência no desemprego também vem crescendo, sublinha o Ipea nos dados do IBGE. O percentual de trabalhadores que procuram emprego há dois anos ou mais cresceu ao longo de 2018 até chegar a 26% no último trimestre. “Consequentemente, no último trimestre do ano passado, 48% dos desocupados se mantiveram nesta situação durante todo o período”, diz o boletim.

Outro dado apontado pelo Ipea é a alta do percentual de residências sem renda proveniente do trabalho. De acordo com o estudo, 22,2% dos domicílios brasileiros estavam nessa situação no último trimestre de 2018, enquanto, no fim de 2017, o percentual era de 21,5%. Em números absolutos, 16 milhões das 72 milhões de residências brasileiras não possuem renda proveniente do trabalho.

Também houve variação positiva dos percentuais de domicílios com renda muito baixa e alta. No quarto trimestre de 2018, 30,1% das residências tinham renda menor que R$ 1.601,18 no país, enquanto, no fim de 2017, a fatia era de 29,8%. Já os domicílios com renda superior a R$ 16.011,84 passaram de 2% para 2,1% do total.

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