México vai às urnas hoje escolher novo presidente

O México enfrenta dois dias decisivos, na política e no futebol. Neste domingo (1º), cerca de 89 milhões de eleitores irão às urnas para escolher o novo presidente, que nos próximos seis anos governará a segunda maior economia latino-americana, depois da brasileira. Amanhã (2), a seleção mexicana jogará contra o Brasil pelas oitavas de final da Copa do Mundo.

A Comissão Nacional de Direitos Humanos (CNDH) pediu aos 32 governos estaduais, inclusive o da capital, Cidade do México, medidas especiais para proteger os jornalistas, que cobrirão a maior e mais violenta eleição da histórica recente. Durante a campanha, 130 políticos foram mortos – muitos deles candidatos aos 18 mil cargos em disputa. Os assassinatos são atribuídos às gangues e aos cartéis do narcotráfico, que brigam por território e poder, comprando alianças e matando os que se opõem.

Além do presidente, os mexicanos renovarão o Congresso Nacional e escolherão governadores, prefeitos, deputados estaduais e vereadores. Todas as pesquisas de opinião apontam para uma virada, num país tradicionalmente governado por dois partidos: o Partido Revolucionário Institucional (PRI), do atual presidente Enrique Peña Nieto, e o Partido de Ação Nacional (PAN). Dos quatro candidatos à presidência, o favorito é o esquerdista Andrés Manuel López Obrador, conhecido como AMLO, do Movimento Regeneração Nacional (Morena).

Nem Maduro, nem Trump

Aos 64 anos, essa é a terceira vez que AMLO disputa a presidência. Ele começou a carreira política no PRI, que elegeu todos os presidentes mexicanos desde 1929, salvo dois: Vicente Fox (2000-2006) e Felipe Calderón (2006-2012), ambos do PAN. Na década de 1980, López Obrador passou para a oposição.

AMLO perdeu por menos de um por cento as eleições de 2006, para Calderón, e não aceitou a derrota. Ele acusou o governo da época de fraude e convocou uma multidão de simpatizantes à Praça Zócalo, na capital, onde promoveu uma cerimônia de posse como legítimo presidente do México. Desta vez, as chances de AMLO ser eleito são maiores: os eleitores estão cansados da violência, que resultou em 30 mil homicídios em 2017, e dos escândalos de corrupção do atual governo.

“Desde o começo do governo do [ex-presidente] Felipe Calderón, em 2006, até agora, 230 mil pessoas foram assassinadas. Segundo as estatísticas oficiais, mais de 36 mil estão desaparecidas”, disse AMLO, no encerramento da campanha, que reuniu milhares de pessoas, muitas delas jovens. “Um milhão de famílias mexicanas são vítimas da violência.”

Na campanha, AMLO propôs anistiar narcotraficantes, já que a guerra contra eles não deu resultados, e combater a corrupção, que ele considera ser a origem de todos os males. Com o dinheiro recuperado da “elite corrupta”, ele diz que vai financiar programas sociais, dobrar aposentadorias e subsidiar a educação, sem aumentar impostos.

Seus principais rivais – Ricardo Anaya (PAN) e Jose Antonio Meade (PRI) – tentaram arrebatar votos de López Obrador. Eles argumentam que as promessas do candidato favorito são inviáveis e que, com Obrador, o México escolherá um caminho incerto – entre o populismo de esquerda e de direita.

AMLO formou uma coalização para disputar a eleição, que inclui um partido evangélico. Ele respondeu que admira Jesus Cristo “porque ele lutou pelos pobres”. E garante que não será nem “Nicolas Maduro [presidente da Venezuela] nem Donald Trump [presidente dos Estados Unidos]”.

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