Mercosul e Aliança do Pacífico negociam acordos econômicos

O presidente Michel Temer participa, na próxima terça-feira (24), da 1ª Reunião de Presidentes do Mercosul e da Aliança do Pacífico, em Puerto Vallarta (México). O encontro ocorre paralelamente à 13ª edição da Cúpula da Aliança do Pacífico. A expectativa é assinar um acordo sobre comércio de serviços entre o Mercosul e a Colômbia e outro sobre Cooperação e Assistência Administrativa Mútua em Assuntos Aduaneiros entre o Brasil e o México. 

O subsecretário-geral da América Latina e Caribe do Ministério das Relações Exteriores, embaixador Paulo Estivallet de Mesquita, disse hoje (20) que os presidentes devem tratar de temas relacionados à agenda digital, como comércio eletrônico, questões de contrato e direito do consumidor. 

Segundo o embaixador, o encontro entre os presidentes tem importância simbólica pelo “impulso político” na aproximação entre os dois principais agrupamentos econômicos da região. 

A Aliança do Pacífico foi estabelecida em 2011 com o objetivo de integrar Chile, Colômbia, México e Peru. Dos quatro países que compõem o bloco, apenas o México não possui acordo de livre comércio com o Brasil. 

O Mercado Comum do Sul (Mercosul) – Brasil, Argentina, Paraguai, Uruguai – tem como estados associados o Chile, Peru, Colômbia, Equador, Guiana e Suriname. A Bolívia está em processo de adesão ao bloco. 

Acordos 

A possibilidade de acordo entre a Aliança e o Mercosul se intensificou a partir de 2014, quando foram adotadas medidas de facilitação das trocas comerciais entre os países da região. Desde então, já foram removidas várias barreiras tarifárias e regulatórias ao comércio entre os integrantes dos blocos, além de facilitação de cooperação aduaneira e a interação de empresas, principalmente de pequeno e médio porte. 

Segundo o Itamaraty, os dois blocos juntos são responsáveis por 90% do produto interno bruto e dos fluxos de investimentos externo direto da América Latina. Os países ainda congregam 80% da população regional e um mercado de quase 470 milhões de pessoas. 

O Brasil é o maior parceiro comercial de todos os países dos dois blocos, com exceção da Colômbia. Só com os países da Aliança do Pacífico, o Brasil comercializou um total US$ 25 bilhões, soma 18,4% maior que no ano de 2016. 

Em 2017, as trocas comerciais entre todos os países dos dois grupos somaram US$ 35,3 bilhões, volume 18% maior do que foi registrado no ano anterior. As exportações entre os países aumentaram em 15% e as importações em 22%. 

Os principais produtos exportados pelo Mercosul para a Aliança do Pacífico no ano passado foram automóveis, máquinas mecânicas, combustíveis, carnes e cereais. E os importados foram também carros, combustíveis, cobre, minérios e máquinas elétricas. 

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